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A (not so objective and incomplete) Guide to Brazilian Music

2020.04.03 06:19 Flyredas A (not so objective and incomplete) Guide to Brazilian Music

Yeah, it’s quarantine here in my city, I should be studying, but I’m not, therefore, I’m bored, so why not. People have been asking for it anyway, to help them learn pronunciation and familiarize with the culture, so here it goes. Get ready to be completelly sucked into what, in my opinion, is the best kind of music in the world:
Warning: I’m not a specialist, please don’t take me seriously and, if you want, you can and should complement this guide

Typical Brazilian Genres (as far as I know, they don’t exist in other countries)

Axé:
Born in Bahia with great Afro-Brazillian influence, it forms, together with Samba and Frevo, the sacred triunvirate of Carnival Music. Really dancy.
Three notable artists:
Ivete Sangalo
Banda Eva
Chiclete com Banana
Examples of songs:
Cadê Dalila - Ivete Sangalo
100% Você - Chiclete com Banana
Pau que nasce torto - É o Tchan

Bossa Nova:
Yeah, that’s what got us international fame. It’s really hard to describe, maybe a mix of samba and jazz. You probably heard it already.
Notable artists:
Tom Jobim
(Yeah, I don’t know many bossa nova artists. Other Brazilians, please help me and add more artists here)
Update: user u/ma7h_99 sugested some more.
João Gilberto
Elizabeth Cardoso
Examples of songs:
Garota de Ipanema - Tom Jobim
A Felicidade - Tom Jobim
O Barquinho - Nara Leão

Update: Caipira
User u/DouglasK-music pointed out it's similar to Sertanejo, but still different, so here it goes
Notable artists:
Tião Carreiro e Pardinho
Tonico e Tinoco
Almir Sater

Update: Capoeira
User u/moon101010 pointed out it needed its own category. In their words:
"It's music played along the martial art Capoeira while the dancers/fighters dance/fight. It's played with a lot of drums, tambourines and berimbau."
Notable examples:
Mestre Bimba
Mestre Cobra Mansa
Pé de Chumbo

Update: Gauchesca/Nativista
I knew I was missing some Southern genre! User u/uselesshc pointed it out (see their comment below for more artists to listen to!):
"A genre of music from the South region, exalting and paying tribute to the gaúcho's culture (people from the pampas plains that consists in regions from Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina). It consists in lyrics talking about their costumes, traditional foods, livestock lands and working, and their love for the nature. Most instrumentals uses an acoustic guitar, an accordion and some percussion instruments. A more "pop" party-driven variation is called Tchê music, reffering to the popular expression often shouted around in chit-chats"
Notable artists:
Os Serranos
Joca Martins
Luiz Marenco
Notable songs:
César Oliveira e Rogério Melo - Lá na Fronteira
Os Serranos - Tertúlia
César Passarinho - Guri

Forró:
Tipically played with a “sanfona”, (accordeon), the most well known rithym of the Northeast region. Really dancy also.
Three notable artists:
Aviões do Forró - currently disbanded, the main singers keep on singing and being succesful
Luiz Gonzaga - the King
Wesley Safadão
Three notable songs:
Chamego ou Xaveco - Banda Magníficos
Asa Branca - Luiz Gonzaga - the hymn of the Northeast
Coração - Dorgival Dantas

Funk:
Totally different from American Funk. It was born in Rio de Janeiro and is a big part of favela culture. Also really dancy.
Three notable artists:
Ludmilla
Valesca Popozuda - yeah, don’t search “Popozuda” on Google
Bonde do Tigrão
Three notable songs:
Favela Chegou - Anitta e Ludmilla
Beijinho no Ombro - Valesca Popozuda
Vou Desafiar Você - Sapão

MPB (Música Popular Brasileira)
The natural evolution of Bossa Nova, known for it’s use of acoustic guitar. One of the most popular genres.
Three notable artists:
Chico Buarque
Alceu Valença
Tim Maia
Three notable songs:
Partido Alto - Cássia Eller
Geni e o Zepelim - Chico Buarque
O Tempo é Sua Morada - Francisco El Hombre

Pagode:
I don’t even know how to describe it. Reminds me of samba. Typical music for churrascos on Sundays.
Three notable artists:
ExaltaSamba
Sorriso Maroto
Harmonia do Samba - for some weird reason bands with “samba” in the name actually play pagode. While people with “pagode” in the name tend to play samba. I don’t know man.
Three notable songs:
Me apaixonei pela pessoa errada - ExaltaSamba
Sacanagenzinha - Harmonia do Samba e Anitta
Deixa acontecer - Grupo Revelação

Sertanejo:
Our “country”, although it sounds nothing like American Country. Easily one of the most popular genres in Brazil today.
Three notable Artists:
Marília Mendonça
Maiara e Maraísa
Zezé Di Camargo e Luciano
Examples of songs:
Evidências - Chitãozinho e Xororó - the hymn of Brazil basically. Every Brazillian is born knowing how to sing this, like them or not.
Jenifer - Gabriel Diniz
Dormi na praça - Bruno e Marrone

Tecnobrega:
I only know one band of tecnobrega, but I had to include it here, both because it’s really famous and because this list is terribly lacking in styles from the North of Brazil.
Notable band:
Calypso - Disbanded, but the lead singer is still going strong
Update: user u/ma7h_99 made me remember some more:
Gaby Amarantos
Banda Uó
Notable songs:
Voando pro Pará - Joelma
A lua me traiu - Banda Calypso
Ex Mai Love - Gaby Amarantos

Samba
Oh, come on, you know samba. The king rhythm of Carnival. National music genre.
Notable artists:
Adoniran Barbosa
Zeca Pagodinho - See? He has “pagode” in his name, but mostly sings samba. It’s confusing
Cartola
Three notable songs:
Não deixe o samba morrer - Alcione
Marinheiro Só - Clementina de Jesus
Chiclete com Banana - Jackson do Pandeiro

Existing genres, but with Brazilian flavor:

Rock
Also called Brock (Brazilian Rock). Started to get strong on the 80s and is still strong today.
Three notable artists:
Rita Lee
Legião Urbana
Titãs
Three notable songs:
Tempo Perdido - Legião Urbana
Meu Erro - Paralamas do Sucesso
Admirável Chip Novo
Bonus: humor rock band Mamonas Assassinas, who lasted one year before they all died in a plane crash and which are still known by all Brazilians. Listen away from kids and Portuguese people: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1WjI3DLOk4c

Heavy Metal
I had to put this here for the only Brazilian Heavy Metal band I know:
Notable artists:
Sepultura
Update: user u/Mkid73 pointed out I left out Angra
Notable song:
Roots Bloody Roots - Sepultura

Rap
Rap artists in Brazil tend to be really socially engaged. They are strongly associated with the black rights movement.
Three notable artists:
Emicida
Criolo
Racionais MC
Three notable songs
AmarElo - Emicida
Rio 40 Graus - Fernanda Abreu e Chico Science
Qual É? - Marcelo D2

Reggae
I’ve seen it played in the radio sometimes, although I don’t know a lot about it.
Notable artists:
O Rappa
Natiruts
Yeah, I don’t know any others. Other Brazillians, please feel free to help.
Notable songs:
Pescador de Ilusões - O Rappa
Natiruts Reggae Power - Natiruts

Pop
These tend to be a fever for a time and then misteriously disappear.
Notable artists:
Sandy e Júnior - formally disbanded, but still together in the hearts of fans
Anitta - she started as funk, but I have the impression that today she’s mostly a pop artist
Kelly Key
Notable songs
Baba - Kelly Key
A Lenda - Sandy e Júnior
Show das Poderosas - Anitta

Special – Dictatorship songs
Brazil has many songs that were written by artists during our military dictatorship in form of protest. Most of them were censored, but we all know their lyrics to this day, and they are really powerful and important for our History. The most powerful interpretations are still kept in video these days and shown to our children.
Examples:
Disparada - Jair Rodrigues - starts at 7:10. A great interpretation, chilling because during the video you can actually see military personel glaring at him from the public.
Como nossos pais - Elis Regina - not her song, but the most know interpretation. The hymn of defeat.
[Pra não dizer que não falei das flores - Geraldo Vandré - it was forbidden to sing this song for years in the country. In this interpretation you can hear people booing the judges for not choosing it as the best song in a festival during the military dictatorship.

Update: Special - Tropicália
As user u/atMalkyor pointed out, not a musical genre per se, but the closest Brazil ever had to hippie music. I'll leave some of their suggestions:
Notable artists:
Caetano Veloso - the main artist of the movement, his song Tropicália named the style and is almost a manifesto of the movement
Tom Zé
Os Mutantes
Notable songs:
Domingo No Parque - Gilberto Gil
A Menina Dança - Novos Baianos
Panis et Circenses - Os Mutantes

Instrumental music (no lyrics but still important)
Frevo:
Born in Pernambuco. The name comes from an adaptation of the word “fervo”, which means “boil”. As you can guess, really dancy (really hard and exhausting to dance, too) and forms, with Axé and Samba, the triunvirate of Carnival Music.
Dancing: yeah, see if you can keep up, will ya?
Classical music:
I know it exists and that Villa Lobos was an important composer, so I had to put this here.
As Bachianas Brasileiras - Villa Lobos
Chorinho
Played on the violas and violões. Famous, although you may not have heard the name.
Tico tico no fubá - Zequinha de Abreu
Brasileirinho - Waldyr Azevedo
Odeon - Ernesto Nazareth

Bonus: “Brazillian” songs
Yeah, we have a habit of… uhm… adapting songs from other countries. Sometimes so well that some people actually think they are ours. I didn’t even know “Without You” was actually by Mariah Carey until recently. Enjoy?
(Paulinha - Calcinha Preta) Without You – Mariah Carey
(Só quer vrau - MC MM feat. DJ RD) Bella Ciao – Bassotti (I’d like to apologize to the whole country of Italy for this)
(Festa no Apê - Latino) Dragonstea Din Tei – Ozone
(À sua maneira - Capital Inicial) De musica ligera – Soda Stereo
(Se não valorizar - Solange Almeida) Umbrella - Rihanna

Edit: my brain fell asleep and forgot who sang "Evidências". Corrected. Also updated to include some genres that other users pointed out
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2020.02.20 18:39 TheIpleJonesion [EVENT] Brazilian Public Housing of The Latest Type

August 1st, 1952
To a packed session of Parliament today, Prime Minister Ferreira, desperate to revive his image as a do-nothing Prime Minister in service of the Emperor with no personal initiative, announced the largest investment in Brazilian public housing in generations.
The plan, he announced, calls for thirty million US dollars of investment, ten million of which have been generously sent in aid from the United States, ten million of which will be paid for the federal government, and ten million to be sought in foreign aid from “other countries,” (a euphemism for the Soviet Union).
The central tenet of the new housing plan are units entitled, “Coletivos de Habitação Urbana Pessoal” (Personal Urban Housing Collectives), though critics have labeled them “Forasteiros” (Foreigners) for the large funding from external nations. These CHUPs are built around the principles of Ville Radieuse as developed by Le Corbusier and interpreted in a uniquely Brazilian manner. These plans, then, call for compounds in an urban enviornment with vibrant green space, high-density housing and commercial areas, and broad, almost brutalist architecture. Instead of the raw concrete as originally envisioned by Le Corbusier, the CHUPs will be brightly painted and covered in murals. The noted Mexican architect of public housing, Mario Pani, has been hired to design and oversee construction.
Each CHUP is a unit of thirty twelve story buildings in a pentagon surrounding a communal park, with commercial enterprise on the first level of each building, and public buildings (government buildings, chapels, elementary schools, libraries, recreation centers) occupying one of the five sides and six of the buildings. Together they are designed to be self-suffecient, though integrated with their surrounding city, and house 5,000 Brazilians in poverty, though some of the units will be available to rent to subsidize the lower rent for the rest of the occupants. Each unit is estimated to cost 3 million US dollars, and so ten are to be constructed. Three will be built in Rio de Janeiro, three in São Paulo, two in Salvador, one in Fortaleza, and one in Belo Horizonte. If this initial program is successful, yet more will be constructed across the county, definitively ending homelessness in Brazil once and for all.
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